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INVESTIGATION OF NEW DIMENSION OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE

 

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INVESTIGATION OF NEW DIMENSION OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1      BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

  It must be stated without doubt that examination malpractice have assumed alarming and disturbing rate at various levels in our school system. Many patriotic Nigerians are disturbed by the tread; since it could lead to a stage where certificate obtained by our education institutions will not be recognized by other countries. Education is believed to be the last hope of the common man in any country if it is allowed to be destroyed by omission or commission. It will be a disaster for the overall development of the nation and also the future of our children will be stake.
    According to Ajoke and Harbor-Peters (1990) examination malpractice refers to any action taken by those involved in a test or examination which renders the result obtained form such assessment invalid. Before now, malpractice of a general nature such as cases bordering on anxiety and general inadequate preparation were prevalent in both internal and external examinations.  Other examination malpractice like smuggling cribs textbooks into the halls collusion and attempts to copy from other candidates work common presently sophisticated method like use of contractors impersonation, dubbing, bullets or missiles etc are used.  However, examination malpractice has taken a dangerous and disturbing turn in recent years since parents; teachers, supervisors and even the school principals are directly involved. There had been a case where supervisors are bought by parents or students to enable the later do where they like in the hall. Thus, such supervisors allow students to take questions papers outside to be solved by touts commonly referred to as “mercenaries”. At times, questions are solved by subject teachers and solutions distributed to candidates who contribute money to finance the deal. There had been a case where principals organize welfare or entertainment funds in order to but the supervisor over and make them co-operate. The supervisors in turn feel indifferent to whatever is happening in the hall.  Principal in these school also arrange to ensure an early warning as soon as an external supervisor is sighted some supervisors also do not parcel their answer script at the appropriate time but want for a convenient time to substitute candidates scripts on payment of the require fees.  The above forms of examination malpractice are peculiar with external examination.
    Examination malpractices also occur in internal examination but highly technical as those discussion above. In most cases principles and teachers are not involved except few teachers who gives them question papers to loved students. However students go on their own way to make sure they pass the examination, this they carry notebooks, textbooks and others written materials into the hall some wrote on their legs, hands and in pieces of papers which they pin to their dresses.  These incidence of examination malpractice has reduced students urge to read hence the believe that they will find a way of passing when the examination comes thus one of the reasons for the introduction of the present 6-3-3-4 system of education which is to curb examination malpractices in not yielding fruits.
    As a result of the in-controllable rate of examination malpractice Ugwu (1993) said that “the problem is academic virtually in all schools in the country. Those who are caught and punished are just a tiny fraction of the culprits they are regarded by student as the unfortunate ones.
    This is causing a lot of concern to patriotic and well meaning, Nigerians especially those in the school system.  Every Nigerian should therefore contribute his or her quota to see that this menace is wiped out of our school system. To this end it will be pertinent to study the causes of examination malpractices in order to find solution to them.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In an effort to maintain order in the examination class, sometimes teacher can actually make the problems worse. Therefore, it is important to consider some of the basic mistakes commonly made when implementing the strategies in enhancing effective supervision of examination. For example, a common mistake made by teacher is to define the problem behavior by how it looks without considering its function.

Interventions are more likely to be effective when they are individualized to address the specific function of the problem behavior. Two students with similar looking misbehavior may require entirely different intervention strategies if the behaviors are serving different functions. Teacher need to understand that they need to be able to change the ways they do things from year to year, as the students change. Not every approach works for every child. Teacher  need to learn to be flexible. Another common mistake is for the teacher to become increasingly frustrated and negative when an approach is not working.

The teacher may raise his or her voice or increase adverse consequences in an effort to make the approach work. This type of interaction may impair the teacher-student relationship. Instead of allowing this to happen, it is often better to simply try a new approach.

Inconsistency in expectations and consequences is an additional mistake that can lead to dysfunction in the examination class. Teacher must be consistent in their expectations and consequences to help ensure that students understand that rules will be enforced.

1.3 PURPOSE

The study intended to establish the influence of ICT on examination malpractices in higher institution.

1.4 OBJECTIVES

1. To find out levels of availability of ICT for exam management in higher institutions.

2. To find out levels of accessibility of ICT for exam management in higher institutions

3. To find out level of use of ICT for examinations in higher institutions.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1. At what levels is ICT available for examination management in higher institutions?

2. At what levels is ICT accessible for examination management in higher institutions?

3. What are the levels of use of ICT for examination in higher institutions?

1.6 SCOPE

This study was conducted in a higher institution. The content of the study was confined to establishing the level of accessibility, availability and use of information and communication technology and its influence on examination malpractice in higher institutions. The target population was lecturers (teachers) and academic registrars.

 

1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1. The study will provide examination administrators and registrars of higher institutions with information about the levels of availability of ICT facilities.

2. It would also benefit University administrators with data about the levels of accessibility of ICT and its use for exam management.

3. The study would help the future researchers to make future references on this work with the aim of building more knowledge in the field of ICT and education administration.

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