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EFFECT OF POVERTY ON THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN IN NIGERIA

 

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EFFECT OF POVERTY ON THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN IN NIGERIA

 

Abstract

This study was a survey conducted to determine the relationship between poverty and women education in Abak Local Government Area ,Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. In a cross sectional survey design, 1360 simple randomly selected women in Abak local  government area were administered a questionnaire with a reliability index of 0.76. Simple percentage was used for data analysis. The research found out that the major problems of women’s education includes: household poverty, gender discrimination and low social economic status. As a result, the study recommends that free and compulsory education should be given to girls at all level, this will help substitute for poor parents’ financial burden  and effort  of  poverty  alleviation by the government should be intensified to reach the very poor person at the local level. Seminars and conference should be organized to parents and women on the value of education for the future development.

 

1.1 Background of the study

A number of people are slipping unnoticeably into situation in which their incomes are no longer adequate to cater for their basic needs and those of their dependants. This is referred to as poverty. In the International standard any family that cannot boost of an income of 2.5 dollars a day is poor World Bank ( 2013).

According to Townsend (1992) poverty is lack of resources to obtain basic needs namely food,

clothing, housing education etc and is a major problem of our time which goes along with environmental threats, weighting heavily on our planet. In Nigeria, studies by Akikpo (1995) revealed that the portion of household living below the poverty line in the four cities of Lagos, Ibadan, Kano and Onitsha where. Poverty is closely linked with shortage of certain vital resources. It often results from an enduring harsh and inhospitable environment, but more often than not, from the breakdown of economic demographic, ecological, cultural and social system. Joseph (1993) observed that poverty emerges when distortion becomes too pronounced among people, groups and nations. They lost their capacity to adapt to changes for survival.

According to Olayemi (1995) poverty is also closely linked wih insecurity about the present and

future. This often leads to tension and sometimes to violence and conflict. And as Ebele (1991) have shown relatively deprived people may exhibit certain attitudes and behavior which further compound their poverty.

Poverty can be classified as absolute, relative and subjective poverty. Absolute poverty usually involves a absence of basic human needs and is measured in terms of the resources required to maintain health and physical efficiency. Townsend (1992) argued that individuals, families, and group in the population can be said to be in poverty when they lack the resources to obtain the type of diets, participate in activities which are customary, or at least widely encouraged and approved, in societies to which they belong. The argument on relative poverty rests on the observation that for practical purposes, standard become higher by the day and are difficult to satisfy in the ever changing expectations of modern life. Therefore relative poverty suggests whether or not individuals or group live up to expected standard of the day (Onyishi ,1994).

A third conceptualization of poverty is subjective  poverty, which refers to whether or not individuals or groups feel they are poor.   Subjective poverty as noted by Ayeuma (1993) is closely  related  to  relative  poverty  since  those  who  are  defined  as  poor  in  terms  of  the standards of the day will see themselves and feel themselves to be poor. For example, a formally wealthy individual reduce by circumstances to a modest lower middle class income and lifestyle may feel poor but other member of the society may not regard him as such. Conversely,  individual  and  group  judged  in  term  of  majority  standards  poor  may  not  see themselves as poor. The concept of subjective poverty is important since, to some degree, people act in terms of the way they perceive and define themselves. Therefore, Bradley (1993) observed that subjective poverty suggests whether or not individuals or group feel they are poor. This is determined by the prevailing standard. Diane(1993) observed that unequal gender relationship  are  sustained  and  legitimize  through  ideas  of  difference  and  inequalities  that express widely held beliefs and values about the nature of masculinity and feminist. Education among other needs is a response to the socio-economic situation of the individuals or group, the women education are traced to the families socio-economic situation in which they have grown( Bockelt & Cornels(1996.

 

1.2 Statement of the problem

Generally, countries with high GNP have greater educational quality for male and female, unlike most poor countries, there is considerable variation both in overall enrolment ratios. Collaboratively, Graham-Browne(1991) noted that financial considerations leads families to subordinate the education of women. Low income level of most household, makes it difficult for their children to go to school. Poverty at household level discourage parents from enrolling their female children in school or withdrawing them once the demand for school fees. It is interesting to note that quite a large number of people are below the poverty line in spite of plenty in some countries. The condition of poverty caused families to struggle with malnutrition, illiteracy, disease, infant mortality and short life span.

African governments have made tremendous efforts to increase access to education. However women education has remained considerably low. Poverty and persistence high demographic pressure on education system have resulted in stagnation in environment and decline in quality, (UNESCO/ UNICEF 1993 ; World Bank (1997, 2013). Others pressing education concerns include poor students’ participation, high dropout and repetition level,  low academic achievement and low teaching morale and attendance to lesson. This project intends to look into poverty and women education in Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

Female Education is considered to be the greatest assert any individual can require. But its

acquisition is limited largely by poverty. Women appear disadvantaged group when choice is to be made in educating one in a poor family. Thus they tend to experience educational challenges more than men in a poor family. Against this backdrop, this study is poised to find out how poverty affects women education.

 

1.3 Objectives of the study

2       To understand the nature of gender discrimination affect women education?

3       To understand the effect of poverty on women education?

4       To understand the effect of poor homes on women education?

 

1.4 Research Questions

1       The following questions will guide the formation of this study:

2       How does gender discrimination affect women education?

3       What does poverty have on women education?

4       How does poor home affect women education?

 

1.5 Research Hypotheses

1       There is no relationship between poverty and women education.

2       There is no significant relationship between gender discrimination and women education.

3       There is no significant relationship between poor home and women education.

 

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