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AN APPRAISAL OF DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION AS A TOOL FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT




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AN APPRAISAL OF DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION AS A TOOL FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

ABSTRACT
This study was carried out wit the sole objective of determining the appraisal of development communication as a tool for national development. In tackling this study, the researcher identified the researcher problem and used them to raise four research questions and for four research hypothesis. Literature relating to the topic under study was reviewed through both primary and secondary sources of literature. The researcher used survey research design that enable her to seek for experts opinions on the topic as well as collect data and interpreter same. Also the researcher used 300 respondents as the sample size used to represent the population of the study. She analyzed the data for the study and the tested the hypothesis formulated for the study there in. The findings of the study showed that: Development communication is a tool for national development. That the government uses the programmes and policies to take development communication to the masses in Nigeria. That bribery and corruption hinder development in Nigeria. The researcher summarized the topic under study, drew conclusion and made recommendations based on the findings from the study.
TABLE OF CONTENT:

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1     Background of the Study
1.2     Statement of the Research Problem
1.3     Objectives of the Study
1.4     Significance of the Study
1.5     Research Questions
1.6     Research Hypothesis
1.7     Conceptual and Operational Definition
1.8     Assumptions
1.9     Limitations of the Study
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1     Sources of Literature
2.2     The Review
2.3     Summary of Literature Review
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1     Research Method
3.2     Research Design
3.3     Research Sample
3.4     Measuring Instrument
3.5     Data Collection
3.6     Data Analysis
3.7     Expected Result
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
4.1     Data Analysis
4.2     Results
4.3     Discussion
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1     Summary
5.2     Recommendations for Further Study
Bibliography

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
To develop is to advance in terms of human and materials growth.  Development is all encompassing because development leads to expansion in all spheres of human endeavour.  Without proper communication, development will not be achieved because development and communication are the bases for human advancement. It is as a result of this that no human society will develop without appropriate channel of communication to link different development indices in that society.
        Development communication can be seen as a tool for national development because no nation can exist without proper information exchange which is at the heart of development.  As Okenwa (2002) would state “Communication is central to the process of development to an has virtually been taken for one granted” this simply means that without communication, there is nothing like development and vice-versa.
        Any nation which wants to achieve development at any level of its existences cannot or ought not neglect the need to use communication to achieve such development objectives.  This is based on the premise that the mass media which are vehicles for carrying information are also the sole agents of development.  As Nwodu and Ukozor (2003:27) would state.
        The primary motive of embarking on development….. is to create adequate awareness about the development project meant to enhance the well being of the inhabitant of a given society and by so doing sensitize their adoption of the projects.
        This statement above could be extended to mean that development and communication go hand-in-hand.  The need to use communication to achieve development is very important because, it is through human interaction or information exchange that the masses can kwon above developmental programmes and policies going on in a given society, such as ours.
        The truth remains that communication can help us to establish meaningful relationship.  Through communication we can make others to know about those development programme and policies of the government as well as that of groups and individuals in order to make them to be part of such development ideas.  The need to use communication in national development is varied in nature.  For example, communication can be used in development in order to widen the horizon of society members to focus attention on important issues in the society. Thereby setting agenda for the society as well as to create a climate of development.
        This can easily be achieved when members of the society are meant in to understood that development communication is the most important aspect of the beginning of development in any given society. Without the combination of the roles communication plays in a society and factors of production which are the core value of development, no nation will achieve sustainable national development. This is why communication cannot be isolated in the discussion of national development in Nigeria.  
1.2     STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
 The problem confronting Nigeria today is poverty which is extremely caused by underdevelopment of both human and materials resources in the country.  This in turn is as a result of lack of awareness on the part of the masses to understand how best to use information in ensuring sustainable national development.
        Bearing in mind that the development of individuals in Nigeria automatically guarantees the overall development of the nation, many media consumers have argued that government has not done enough to take development messages and projects programmes to those individuals that need them most.  Whereas others claim that much connection of information at the centre of apex (ie) (the federal level) has been centre of the use of communication as a tool for a development in Nigeria.  This argument by different people in the society is prompted by the fact that development and communication work hand in hand.  One cannot do without the other.
        Again, illiteracy lack of proper involvement of the masses in development activities and management of human and materials in Nigeria have constituted a lot of set backs in the development of the nation. Also poor or lack of information exchange between our leaders and the ruled is a problem in the development of Nigeria.  These factors and some other constitute the basis for embarking on this type of study.
1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Based on the identified research problems stated below, the following are the objective of the study. They include:
-                             To determine whether development communication is a tool for ensuring sustainable national development in Nigeria.
-                             To determine whether government uses its programme and policies to take development to the masses in Nigeria.
-                             To determine whether illiteracy is a problem in the achievement of all sorts of national development in Nigeria
-                             To find out whether mass media in Nigeria have done enough to ensuring sustainable national development.
-                             To determine whether foreign dominance of work unformation and communication order (WICO) has hinder Nigerian development .
-                             To find out whether media practitioners partners with government in all aspects of national development.
-                             To determine whether bribery and corruption have hindered development in Nigeria.
-                             To make recommendations for policies formulation and further studies on the topic under study. 
1.4   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be of great benefit to a good number of people.  The study will benefit the federal, state and local government in Nigeria to understand how best to use communication for the development of the nation.  It will also benefit other policy makers in Nigeria particularly media practitioners to understand the relevant of their profession in the use of development communication as a tool for national development.
        This study will also be a great importance to every Nigeria, particularly those living in rural area who need development communication in more than any other set of people in Nigeria.  This study will also benefit every Nigerian in order to make them to be participants in discussing or implementing the programmes and policies relating to national development in Nigeria.
        In all, his study will benefit future researcher in the field of mass communication and social management sciences to plan well in ensuring the achievement of sustainable national development using development communication.
1.5   RESEARCH QUESTIONS
        Based on the objectives of this study, the following research questions were posed by the researcher they include:
-                             Is development communication a tool for national development in Nigeria?
-                             Does the government use its programmes and policies to take development communication to the masses in Nigeria?
-                             Have mass media in Nigeria partnered with the three tiers of government in all aspect of national development?
-                             Have bribery and corruption hindered development in Nigeria?
-                             Have bribery and corruption hindered development in Nigeria?
1.6   RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Based on the above mentioned research questions the researcher dedicated to formulated the following research hypothesis. They are
H1:  Development communication is a too for national
development in Nigeria
H0:  Development communication is not a too for
national development in Nigeria
H2:  Government uses its programmes and policies to take development communication to the people.
H0: Government does not use its programmes and policies to take development communication to the people.
H3:  Mass media in Nigeria partners with the three tiers of government in all aspects of national development
H0:  Mass media in Nigeria do not partners with the three tiers of government in all aspects of national development
H4:  Bribery and corruption has hundred development
in Nigeria.
H0:  Bribery and corruption has not hundred development in Nigeria. 
1.7   THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
        No basic research will be complete without a theory or two to back up the study.  In line with this statement, the researcher will anchor this study on “development Media Theory”
        According to Folarin (1998:3) this study seeks to explain the normative behaviour of the press in countries that are conventionally classified together as “development countries” or “third world countries” these phrase are used to reflect the level of development attained by these countries.
        This theory emerged in the 1980’s to fill the gap which became increasingly noticeable as the gap between the development and developing countries widened, it became apparent that none of the classical theories of the press was strictly applicable to developing countries even though the mass media the in the country were operating according to the principles of the classical theories.
        It is also a result of these factors that Mcquacil (1987:121) summarized the basic principles of the development media theory as follows:
-                             Media should accept and carryout development tasks in the line with nationally established policy.
-                             Freedom of the media should be open to economic priorities and the development needs of the society.
-                             Media should give priority in the contents to the national culture and language
-                             Media should give priority in new and information to link with other developing countries which are close geographically, culturally and politically etc.     
Basically on the above evidences from these media experts, it becomes very necessary to not that this theory is relevant to this study because it will encourage the nation to use development communication as at tool for national development.
1.8   SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study covers all the programme and policies of the federal, state and local governments meant to encourage development as well as ensure sustainable national development.  Also the study will cover all the residents of Enugu metropolis and development initiatives carried out in Enugu State.  Again the mass media and their practitioners, public office holders and all the necessary tools employed by individuals groups, government and non-government and non-government organization would be used as the scope of the study.

 








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