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EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF GOVERNMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The research work examined the effects of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Government in secondary schools in Osun State, making Osogbo Local Government Area of the state a case study. From five schools, four Government teachers and ten students were randomly picked from each school making a total of twenty teachers and fifty students. The instrument used for collection of data was the questionnaire. Two types of questionnaire were used; the students’ questionnaire and the teachers’ questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed by the use of percentages, and frequency distribution tables were used to determine the distribution of the respondents.
From the analysis of the data, the use of instructional materials was seen as very important in the schools as the students understand more and enjoy Government lessons when they are taught with instructional materials. The responses of the students during government lessons when instructional materials were used were seen to be highly encouraging. This emphasized the use of instructional materials by teachers.
The findings showed that chalkboards, textbooks, maps, pictures, and real objects were the most commonly used instructional materials in government lessons in the study area. Considering the fact that instructional materials give information to the students on particular topics and reduced the problems of teaching and learning of Government in secondary schools in Osogbo Local government, the use of instructional materials must be taken seriously.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Instructional materials have become instruments without which teaching and learning processes can not be done. Educationists of advanced countries saw its effective use in the teaching and learning processes. The use was first in the kindergarten whereby it facilitated teaching and learning. Therefore, instructional materials have been in use from time immemorial. They help both the teacher and the learners to impart knowledge and to understand concepts respectively.
The instructional materials which enhance effective teaching and learning in primary and secondary schools, and even in tertiary institutions now, it has been introduced as a course of study in some of our higher institutions and tagged as educational technology. Also, the use of instructional materials has eaten deep into our educational fabrics that without its use, it will be difficult to teach effectively. It is no gainsaying that it is the wheel on which teaching and learning operate. This is why many schools have taken interest in looking at various topics on instructional materials both in the schools and other educational institutions, be it at the lower level or the higher level.
Mass failure of students in both primary and secondary schools has partly been traced to the non use of instructional materials in primary or secondary schools. These instructional materials include the use of textbooks, real objects, pictures and film strips to mention a few. It has been observed that schools that are called demonstration schools and model schools perform well in external examination than those in the public schools because of lack of these instructional materials.
This study therefore sought to look at the effects of instructional materials in some schools in Osogbo Local Government Area of Osun State. The researcher will see how teachers have been using instructional materials and how learners on their own use these instructional materials to aid their learning. Also, the study sought to look at the importance of instructional materials in teaching and learning Government in the schools.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
The study is intended to look at the use of instructional materials in some selected secondary schools. It is also intended to look at the problems confronting the teachers in the use of instructional materials in teaching Government. Also, it will look into the effective use of instructional materials and to assess its importance in the teaching and learning situation.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to see and bring into limelight, the problems encountered in acquisition of instructional materials. It is also to know how effective these materials are and how much is gained from the use. Again, the study will enable future researchers to continue from where this researcher has stopped and to give new forms of modalities and improvement. Another purpose of this study is to serve as information for other academic researchers.
1.4 LIMITATION TO THE STUDY
The scope of the study will be to cover five selected secondary schools in Osogbo Local Government. This research study could not cover the whole population of students in Osogbo Local Government due to financial constraints and limited time schedule for this project.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is significant as the findings on effective use of instructional materials in teaching government in secondary schools will be significant. The researcher will provide useful guide towards effective use of instructional materials which will encourage more and better use of instructional materials in teaching of government in schools.
1.6 DEFINITION OF VARIABLES USED
This is the result got from the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of government as a subject in the secondary schools.
Instructional materials may be things or objects brought in to play to emphasize clearly or visualize the instructions given in the class. Instructional materials act as supplement to normal process of instruction. This makes teaching and learning of Government easier in the secondary schools.
This is the art of imparting knowledge to students.
This is a permanent change in behaviour that results from experience. It is also the act of acquiring information taught to the students.
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