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A SURVEY OF FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO POOR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PUPILS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS


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A SURVEY OF FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO POOR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PUPILS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS


ABSTRACT

The focus of this research work boarders on a survey of factors that contribute to poor academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area Enugu State.

          The perennial problem of poor academic performance of pupils in the primary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area Enugu State has reached an appalling level with poor results in first school leaving certificate examination, whereby for over a decade distinction had completely escaped first school leavers, while credits is scored with great difficulty by just a few pupils.

This study is based on verifying the following issues:

Factors influencing poor academic performance in Enugu South Local Government Area

And

The possible solution for improving academic performance in Enugu South the local government area.

The research paper focused on the possible solution which have been suggested for improving pupils general academic performance in the local government area.

The possible solutions were based on pupils, teachers, parents, government, the environment and society.  The implications of the suggested possible solutions to class room teaching and total management and execution of primary education in Enugu South Local Government Area were also discussed.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     INTRODUCTION

The content of Nigeria education must reflect the past, present and future of the dynamic Nigeria society in terms of the role the individual is expected to play in the present modernization process.  Primary education, which is the basic of this study, is the education given in an institution for children or pupils between the ages of 6 and 11 years plus.  Since the rest of the education programme activities and system are based upon it, primary education, therefore, is the key to the success or failure of the whole education system program.  Since the end of the Nigeria – Biafran civil war on 1970, academic excellence has been on the decline.  This appears to be more pronounced in primary schools.  Poor academic performance has constituted a big problem, not only for schools but also for the dynamic Nigerian society.   Enugu-South primary schools for more than two decades has been faced with problems of poor academic performance.  This problem is mostly reflected in the common Entrance Examination results.  Millions of naira is being pumped into Education in Nigeria in general are and in  Enugu State in particular.

Notwithstanding this the issue of poor performance in Education has continued to persist.

Mbakwe (1980) highlights the important of Education when he says “Education is the greatest industry in Imo State”.  Statistical report from Appendix 12 of History of Education in Nigeria by A.  Fafunwa (1985) observed that enrollment into primary schools has been on the increase since 1970.  But events have shown that primary schools’ performance have been on the decline.  Primary six pupil gain little or nothing from what is offered to them in schools and hardly can one see an elementary six pupil write correctly simple letter, express himself / herself in simple speech or converse effectively amongst colleagues in English.

Having a knowledge of the common time table in mathematics is a Herculean task.

In Enugu State, Enugu-South Local Government has thirty Nine (39) primary schools, there are also private schools recently opened in each zone and schools for nomads, with qualified teachers.  But then these have not helped matters.  Constant research in curriculum development and introduction of continuous assessment are yet to take care of this issue of poor academic performance in primary schools in Local Government Areas.

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

Information available from the Enugu State Ministry of Education indicates that there has been a steady decline in the performance of pupils in the first school leaving certificate examination.  Data available indicates that the cut-off mark from entry into Secondary schools have been lowered to enable pupil get admission into the state secondary schools.  The data showed that from 2000 to 2005 distinctions in the first school leaving certificate has been relatively scarce.

This has necessitated the basis for this research with a view to find some solutions to these persistent problems.

1.3     PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

Basically the purpose of this study is to establish if there is actually a poor academic performance among the primary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area.  Essentially, the study is aimed at unraveling the factors that lead to the poor academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Enugu South with a view of finding solution to the problems.

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will be of great help to policy makers in Nigeria Educational System most especially in the area of planning and optimum utilization of human and material resources.

It will also be of help to students and researchers who might be interested in this area of study.

The findings of this study will help in no small measure in identifying the factors that are responsible for the poor academic performance.

The study will also avail researchers appropriate recommendations to issues related to poor academic performance.  Through this study the various stake-holders will be able to understand their various roles that will help to reduce poor academic performance.

1.5     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions were answered:

1.5.1  To what extent does parental influence contribute to the poor academic performance of primary school pupils in Enugu South Local Government Area?

1.5.2  Does these major factors:- Quality of teacher, laxity on the part of government, Environmental influence, contribute to the poor academic performance of primary school pupils in Enugu South Local Government Area?

1.5.3  What are the possible strategies for improving the academic performance of primary schools pupils in Enugu South Local Government?

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY (DELIMITATION)

1.6.1  This study is designed to investigate the factors that contribute to poor academic performance of primary school pupils in Enugu South Local Government Area.

1.6.2  To determine the contributions of parental influence to the poor academic performance of primary schools pupils in Enugu South Local Government area.

1.6.3  The Strategies for improving the academic performance of primary school pupils in Enugu South Local Government area.

1.7     LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study is restricted to primary schools in Enugu South Local Government area Enugu State

The researcher was confronted with a number of obstacles / difficulties in the course of this study.  Some of these limitations are discussed below:

1.7.1  Respondent

Some of the respondents exhibited negative characters.  Some bluntly refused to fill the questionnaire or answer basic question possed on them.  While some of them reluctantly accepted to respond with some reservation and maintained that they were not in the best position to respond when actually there were.

1.7.2  Finance

There was a problem of inadequate fund to transport the researcher from her house to places where vital information as concerned this research work could be obtained.  Inadequate finance restricted the researcher from obtaining certain necessary materials.  Thus, for a successful research work, money is a motivator.

1.7.3  Problems of getting accurate statistical data

It was difficult on the researcher to get accurate statistical data for his research work since there were different teachers with different qualifications in those selected primary schools in Enugu South Local Government area.

There are 39 primary schools in this Local government out of which a sample of 10 schools was selected.

The schools are listed below in table form

S/N

NAMES OF THE SCHOOL

LOCATION

1

Idaw River Primary School

I,   II,   III,   IV

Enugu Urban

Agbani Road Primary School

I,   II

Enugu Urban

Zik Avenue Primary School

I,   II,   III,   IV

Enugu Urban

Uwani River Primary School

Enugu Urban

Community Primary School Ugwuaji Awkunanaw

Enugu Urban

Robinson Street Primary School

I,   II

Enugu Urban

Igbariam Street  Primary School

I,   II,   III

Enugu Urban

Achara Layout Primary School

I,   II,   III,   IV

Enugu Urban

Army Children’s Primary School

I,   II,   III,   IV

Enugu Urban

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS

1.8.1  Supervision of Instruction

Supervision of instruction is defined as a process or an activity by which an individual or group of individuals, by means of advising and stimulating interests in teachers and learners, help to improve teaching and learning situation in Educational institutions.

1.8.2  Classroom visitation

This is a situation where the supervisor visits a school for a specific purpose of observing the teacher and his pupils in an actual teaching – learning situation.

1.8.3  Performing

Performing as a process in skill acquisition enables pupils carry out the activities they have been taught and have been guided on what to do.  Performance is an act of achievement

1.8.4  Academic Performance

This refers to academic achievement of the child.  Any child that pays enough attention to his academic pursuit will have a good academic performance and the reverse is the case for truants and those that are academically well owing to their unduly behaviour and non-challant attitude to their studies.

1.8.5  Evaluation

Evaluation is a process of ascertaining or finding out the strength and weakness of students based on what is taught by the teacher under a specified period of time.

1.8.6  Education

Education is the process of acquiring knowledge, skill, attitude and moral.  It is a process of equipping an individual be it young or adult with worthwhile values that will help him to function well in the society.

It is a process through which societies established to see that its cultural heritage (values, belief e.t.c) is passed on to the younger ones (next generation) Education starts from birth to death.

1.8.7  Primary Education

This is transmission of worthwhile values to children within the ages of 6-11 years.  It is education given to a child from the age of 6 – 11 years. Which help the child to master the three (3) RS-reading, writing and arithmetics.
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