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SUSTAINABLE STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION (UBE) PROGRAMME
Universal basic Education programme is programme instituted by Federal Government under the auspices of Federal ministry of Education aimed at reducing illiteracy and create job for Nigerian citizen by being self reliant.
But so far, the programme had encountered some problem.
Therefore the research’s major objective as regards this work is to identification of there problems hindering effective implementation of the programme using some selected schools in Enugu Educational Zone as case study and finding or providing suggestions that will give lasting solutions to the problems .
The research determines the factors that hinders its effectives implementation using three research questions which forms (16) sixteen item questionnaire which was distributed to 150 respondents at various schools selected.
At the end, the questionnaire was collected and analyzed using number of score, tally total scores and mean (frequency distribution) as employ 4 lickert scales (SA, A, D, SD).
On analysis, the mean of scores, less than 2.5 was taken to be disagree with the item while above 2.5 was regarded as agree. From the findings (decision) recommendation were made base on the literature and results of the findings. Finally, conclusion were also made.
1.1 Background of the Study
Universal Basic Education was born out of many programmes which had tried to uplift Educational system in Nigeria like pre compulsory primary school education of six year which later collapsed due to long period of military regime in Nigeria (N.P.E. 2004, 4th edition).
As a result during the implementation phase of the Universal Basic Education Programme (UBEP) in year 2000, it was realized that some efforts was needed to improve the quality of basic education to ensure that a solid foundation was laid at that level of education. This was predicted on the fact that solid basic education would make learning at higher level easier and more meaningful.
Consequently, steps were taken to increase access to basic education, ensure the provision of equal opportunity for all learners and improve quality of education (UBEC Journal 2004). These steps included:-
(i) Construction of additional infrastructure in existing school.
(ii) Rehabilitation of dilapidated infrastructure.
(iii) Creation of new schools in areas that needed their.
(iv) Supply of supplementary reading materials.
(v) Training of more teachers through the Pivotal Teacher Training Programme (PTTO).
Through these steps, the targeted improvement in the learning environment were taken a need was felt to focus attention on the teachers factors, not necessarily the quantitative aspect which had been addressed by the Pivotal Teachers Training Programme and other initiatives but the quality aspect which hitherto had remained unattended to Teachers all over the world are recognized as a critical factor in delivery of quality education. Therefore level of teachers quality has to be made in order to ensure successful basic education in Nigeria.
Following the backdrop in implementation of this programme, Universal Basic Education commission was established during the Administration of Olusegun Obasanjo by an act 2004 by Act of National Assembly the compulsory free, Universal Basic Education Act 2004 to includes six years of primary school and three additional years of Junior Secondary School.
According to the act, it provides compulsory, free universal basic education for all children of primary school and junior secondary school age in Federal Republic of Nigeria.
It also stipulates penalties for any parent who fails to comply with the provisions.
But with all these stipulations and act embarking this programme much had not be achieved in providing this basic education for all citizenly (UBEC Journal, 2004).
Therefore as a result of that I was prompted to pick this as a research topic so that I will contribute in solving the problems facing universal basic Education in Nigeria by bring a lasting solution to it.
“Sustaniable strategies for effective implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme in Nigeria.
To achieve these, Universal Basic Education Programme and its objectives must be critical at the foundation so that good foundation will be laid for life-long learning process.
The Universal Basic Education programme and its lofty objectives would of course be sabotaged if left in the hands of under-qualified, badly trained, ill equipped and unmotivated teachers.
As a result, this research work will concentrates of finding out the major problem which endangers proper implementation of Universal Basic Education which includes how inadequate infrastructure and facilities/finding, curriculum content and development and inadequate manpower effect its full implementation and finding a lasting solutions to it.
1.1 (i) Inadequacy of infrastructure and poor funding; this has been one among many factor which hinders proper implementation of this programme since we know that teaching and learning process cannot take place where there is no infrastructural material like structures (building) where the actual learning process takes places, and instructional materials. Therefore in this case teacher cannot use them head or sit under mango trees to teach therefore effort will be made through this work to enlighten public and all stakeholders to support in providing these material which are lacking in our schools.
1.1 (ii) Curriculum content of the basic education
Curriculum should be made in a way that it will reflect the purposed/aim and target of the programme so that adequate skills will taught to student during this nine (9) years uninterrupted basic education which will give them adequate skill needed.
1.1 (iii) Inadequate in area of manpower, in this area, teachers factors contributes a lot in full implementation of the programme.
This is because we cannot give what we don’t have, therefore it is of great benefits if we ensure that the teachers who are involve in this programme will be highly educated and acquits themselves in all methods of teaching, they should have in their hand all about lesson plan which includes introduction, general sequence/orderliness of presentation, questioning, pupils’ participation, use of chalkboard, time, allocation, evaluation of learning outcomes, including lesson summary and home work/assignment. Another factor in manpower is issue of teachers remuneration because even when the teacher knows all it takes to teach but he or she receives almost nothing at the end of the month, he or she cannot give all his best which will create inadequacy in manpower therefore the issue reward should be encouraged for devoted work.
When all these factors are achieved after nine years of continuous education, every child that passes through the programme should acquire appropriate levels of literacy, innumeracy, common manipulative and life skill and employable, useful to himself and the society.
1.2 Statement of Study
In the past decades, Nigeria has been trying to formulate one programme or the other through National Policy on Education in order to achieve equal education for all citizen at least 9 (nine years of Basic Education which will be equal opportunity for all citizen will to achieve national goal (N.P.E. 2004) which is to live in unity and harmony as indivisible, indissoluble and democratic society backed up by self reliance.
Universal Basic Education was introduced by Federal Government in order to remove distortion and inconsistencies in basic education delivery and reinforce the implementation of National policy on Education as well as provide access to and ensure quality of basic education throughout Nigeria in consistent with National Policy on Education.
It is important to observer that without sustainable strategies for the implementation of the Universal Basic Education programme which National Policy on Education plans to achieved which targeted at National unity and integration with entire citizenly being self reliance. The researcher is worried about strategies for implementations of Universal Basic Education Programme. Hence, the sustainable strategies for effective implementation of Universal Basic Education programme in primary junior secondary school. Therefore there is need for sustainable strategy for implementation of Basic Education using Enugu Educational Zone as a case study.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to find out the major sustainable strategies for effective implementation of universal basic education.
It is also important to carryout this study to draw the attention of the public to full participation in implementation of better strategies so as to enhance the Universal Basic education programme in order to:-
(a) Ensuring an uninterrupted access to nine (9) years of formal education by providing free and compulsory Universal Basic Education for every child of school age.
(b) Reducing school drop-out and improving relevance, quality and efficiency and
(c) Acquisition of literacy, innumeracy life skills and values for life long education and useful living.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Although, there had been a lot of publications on researches carried out for proper implementation of universal basic education in Nigeria.
But it is hoped that this work will provide an insight into problems facing proper implementation of universal basic education programme and serves as a guide post to this programme in Nigeria.
Moreover, the study or research will provide empirical evidence useful for full achievement of policies on to policy makers in educational sector in Nigeria especially in universal basic education, programme. This will go along way to help achieve the target “education for all Nigeria in nearest future.
Therefore, this study will be of great interest and relevance to all governmental agencies who are the stakeholders in educational sector or the agencies involves in making and formulating policy to enhance educational background of entire citizens.
To the schools, this study will help provide needed infrastructure that will show that it is real school setting or an environment that donates a learning atmosphere and environments. In area of manpower, that is giver of knowledge themselves “Teacher” the research will provide an atmosphere where the teacher will enhance and update his knowledge in continuous teacher education without continuous teacher education, teacher cannot give education per excellence, which is quality education to our children.
Above all, when all this had been put on ground for learning purposes, students will benefits more because adequate environment had been provided in area of infrastructure, teacher education then students themselves will now put their heads on ground and learn. While doing this there will conducive atmosphere for learning and cordial relationship between the student and the teacher and the teacher which is the major factor that enhance teaching and learning in schools.
Finally, to the society in general, the significance of the this study will give room for a society where everyone in the society can be self dependent since the programme is aimed at producing citizens that acquire functional literacy, innumeracy and life skills for the children starting from their school age which will help them in later days of life.
It will equally create more awareness and interest in the problem of children of school age dropping out from school and sustainable ways of handling the problem so the entire nation will be devoid of youth restiveness which is caused by lack of job and skills in our youth.
In carrying out in depth investigations in educational sector and entire society, it will guide economic planner and educational planner how plan our children’s education so as to suit our present economy will save our educational value and socio-economic value and sustain-one’s self reliance.
1.5 Scope of Study
1. Universal Basic Education Programmes initiates programmes and initiative for the acquisition of functional literacy, innumeracy and life skills for the school age children.
2. Programme and initiatives for early childhood education and development.
3. The formal school system from the beginning of primary education to the end of the junior secondary school.
4. Formulating a special education for nomadic population through National commission for normadic Education (NCNE).
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