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EFFECT OF WORKING MOTHERS ON EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR CHILDREN
This study entitled "The Effect of working Mothers on the Educational Development their Children" was designed to be descriptive survey method. A sample of 49 children was selected for the study. These children were basic six pupils and the scores for the pupils for three years were used. A simple questionnaire was designed to elicit this information. Five hypotheses were raised to guide the study and hypotheses were tested using analyses of variance CANOVA) and regression technique at 0.05 level of significance.
The study showed that children educational development have high correlation with the working status of the mother and the children moral development does not have any relationship with working status of the mother. In addition, works of mothers do not have any impact on whether the children are male or female and works of mothers do not have impact on children involving in extra curricular activities. Lastly, works of mothers have long run effect on children performance in examination.
The study therefore recommends working mothers should be given some consideration in places of work to have time in attending to their children school and also, government should establish a policy that will allow mothers who are rearing children to leave office early during their children daycare period for proper upbringing.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The need to make all children have access to quality education has made the Federal Government to re-introduce the universal basic education which provides free and compulsory education for all children to Nigeria from basis one to basic mine. This need has made the various tiers of governments to come out with series of incentives, which would encourage children enrolment in schools (Fagbemi, 2006). The effort of the Federal Government has not yielded any positive results, owing to the fact that the standard of education in Nigeria has been falling rapidly over the years in terms of achievement in writing and oral examinations.
The Nigerian students perform poorly in public examinations such as National Examination Council(NECO), West Africa Examination Council (WAEC,)Joint Admission And Matriculation Board(JAMB) and National Business and Technical Council (NABTEC), and the rate of participation of students in examination malpractices has reached an alarming rate. The scenario that has been painted is that Nigerian students are having interest in malpractices than being studious. This development in the educational system has become an issue in which the stakeholders are searching for what might have been responsible for this. The parents have been seen as one of the main reasons for the lost of virtue in the Nigerian educational system.
The high cost of living has led many women to leave their traditional duties of child upbringing to seek for paid employment. In the traditional African settings, women stay at home and nurture the children (Parker, 2010). Through them, the children learn at first contract the norms and obligations of the society. At this period, the children grow up to be morally competent and hardworking. Today, the need to provide for the well-being of the family as well as for their children has thrown many women into the labour market. Equal access to education has made women to reach highs level in educational and career pursuit. Women are lawyers, accountants, engineers, architects, medical doctors, pilots and so on.
Many of these employments do not give them time to carryout their traditional roles as women in the homes. Thus, they are to depend on the service of the third-party for the well-being of their children. What happen to the children of these working women? Are they able to reach the expected limit in their educational development? Is it possible for working women to have competent children in academics? It is on this note that this study wants to examine the impact of working mothers on their children educational development.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Many have believed that working mothers exert negative influence on their children educational development. Children of women who work are believed to be slow in learning at their early years of growth. These children do not have the privilege to have motherly care and they have less support from their mothers' in terms of being assisted with their home works. Being at home, they are left unsupervised and they are released into the hands of the mass media that do not have positive norms to show to these children.
These children have no help when they need their help of a trustworthy and reliable person who is nothing but their parents. Thus, they engage in every form of social vices because these are what they have learnt from mass media that have become their "foster parents." They smoke, fight, commit sexual immorality, and cheat in examination and many of them are dying of drug, cigarette, sexual abuse, homosexual, drinks, cultism, and street fighting to examine the impact of working mothers on their children educational development.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objectives of this study is to examine the impact of working mothers on the educational development of the children. Specifically, the Sub-objectives of the study include:
i. To determine the effect of working mothers on children educational attainment
ii. To identify to extent at which mothers' work affect their children moral development
iii. To identify whether there is difference in working mothers' impact based on the sex of the children
iv. To examine whether mothers' frequent visits to their children's school have effect on the children educational attainment
v. To examine whether the children of working mothers involve actively in school activities.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
HOI: Working mothers do not have any significant impact on their children's educational attainment
Ho2: Working mothers do not have any significant impact on their children's moral development
H03: There is no significant difference between working mothers' effect on their children education and the sex of their children
H04: Working mothers frequent visit to their children's schools do not have any impact on their children educational development
H05: Children of working mothers will be actively involved school extra curriculum activities
H06: Children whose mothers are working and highly educated do not do well in their studies like these whose mothers are less educated and are working.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The rate of low academic achievement and lack of moral among the school children in Nigeria are calling for concerted effort to examine the impact of working mothers on their children. These problems have attracted the concerns of the stakeholders in education, family and society. Therefore, this study will provide some insights to all stakeholders in education, family and society by bringing to limelight some basis but unclarified issue regarding the working mothers and their children educational development to that extent, it may hopefully serve as a basis for government in among out with good policy on women who are working and rearing children.
1.6 Delimitation of Study
This study is delimited to the working mothers who resides within the Alimosho local government area of Lagos State. This will include various categories of working mothers. Alimosho local government is one of the 20 local government area of Lagos state as recognized by the Federal Government of Nigeria.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The limitation of study were as a result of reluctant on the side of the respondents to fill the questionnaire, ignorant of some the respondents. Also the problems of time constraints and distance to be covered by the researcher in the course of carrying out this study.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Working mothers: These are women who are mothers and at the same time engage in work.
Impact: This is the influence a variable has on another variable. In this study, it is the influence that working mothers have on their children educational development.
Educational Development: This is the qualitative and quantitative development of the children in terms of what they acquire in education.
NECO : National Examination Council
WAEC : West Africa Examination Council
JAMB : Joint Admission and Matriculation Board
NABTEC: National Business and Technical Educational Council
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