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THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING BUSINESS STUDIES AT THE JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The Nigerian National Policy on Education (NPE) was developed to meet national technological and economic needs. One of the ways of achieving this policy thrust was the introduction of Business Studies (Business Education subjects) into the Nigerian secondary school curriculum in 19822, including the Junior Secondary School Curriculum in 1982, including the junior secondary school level. This work examined the use of instructional materials in teaching Business Education subjects at the junior secondary in Mushin Local government Area of Lagos State. The essential areas looked into are: the existence and adequacy of instructional materials; the use of instructional materials by trained teachers; proper use and management of the instructional materials; and in-service training for teachers through workshops/semina4rs. Questionnaires were administered on Business Education teachers drawn from 12 schools that offer Business Studies within the study area. It was discovered that there is a great deficiency in all the areas examined, thus creating a huge challenge tour education administrators. Useful recommendations were made to enhance the effective use of instructional materials in teaching Business Studies at the junior secondary level.
1.1BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The Nigerian National Policy on Education (NPE) was developed in 1977 with a focus on meeting national technological and economic needs. One of the ways of achieving this policy thrust was the introduction of Business Studies (Business Studies Subject) into Nigerian secondary school curriculum in 1981. The objective was to give student of Junior Secondary Schools to give students of junior secondary schools a general introduction to the broad field of business, thus, laying a solid foundation for well equipped and informed practitioners that will support economic growth. The National Policy on Education (NPE, 2004).
Section 3 defines Basic Education as “Basic Education shall be of 9 years duration comprising 6 years of primary education and 3 years of junior secondary education. It was further amended in (2010) as 9-3-4, primary school shall be of basic 1 to 9, secondary 3 years and tertiary 4 years. The act of 2004 also defined Universal Basic Education thus.
Universal Basic Education means early childhood are and education, Business Studies subjects are part of the foundational requirements for building a solid background in students towards a competent career in business, management, administration, arts and social science.
The use of instructional materials as an aid to teaching is one of the means of achieving the noble objectives of introducing Business Studies at the Junior Secondary School level. The work examined the use of instructional materials in teaching Business Studies, the effectiveness, both from students and teachers view and the impact on general students performance for a state with high student population like Lagos.
1.2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Most of our Primary and Secondary schools in Nigeria hardly well equipped with instructional materials. Even schools that have them does not utilize them well. Higher educations are also facing the same problem and even those that practices using instructional materials among them are not properly rewarded. In other words, lack of institutional readiness to use the instructional materials even when made available is a problem. It shows lack of support for the use of instructional materials in secondary schools in Lagos State.
1.3PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to assess the use of instructional materials in teaching Business Studies subjects in the junior secondary schools in Lagos State.
1.4OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Arising from the purpose of the study, the following objectives were raised to:
i. Propose ways of making education become more productive in the junior secondary schools.
ii. Provide the teachers the means of arousing and sustaining the interest of learners as well as changing student’s attitude in the classroom.
iii. Advance means of making learning and teaching become more concrete, real, immediate and permanent in the classroom.
iv. Improve instruction methods in the classroom
The following research questions were raised:
i. What are the benefits of using instructional materials in junior secondary schools.
ii. How can we make education more productive among the junior secondary schools in Lagos State junior secondary schools in Lagos State
iii. What ways or method can be used it improve the use of instructional materials in junior secondary school.
iv. How can we make teachers develop interest in using instructional materials in class rooms?
Gagné (1985) proposed a descriptive theory of knowledge consisting of five outcome categories: intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, verbal information, motor skills, and attitudes. He elaborates some of these categories further. He also proposed a descriptive theory of strategy consisting of nine events of instruction: gaining attention, informing the learner of the objective and activating motivation, stimulating recall of prior knowledge, presenting the stimulus material, providing learning guidance, eliciting performance, providing feedback, assessing performance, and enhancing retention and transfer. For each outcome/event category he then identifies the conditions necessary for learning to be efficient and effective. These conditions of learning comprise his prescriptive theory of instruction.
1.7SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is widely known that Education is the bedrock of growth and development of any nation. The goals of meeting national technological and economic needs can not be attained without a pragmatic approach to learning at the secondary school level.
1.8SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study assessed the use of instructional materials in junior secondary schools in Lagos State. Sampled schools from both public and private schools were involved.
Students, teachers, school management and authorities were consulted with the aim of appraising the present use and impact of instructional materials in schools at the junior secondary level.
1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The limiting factors of this study include:
1. Reluctance of the teaching staff to disclose area of weaknesses on the subject matter.
2. The unwillingness of the school administrators to make available their concern over judicious use of Instructional Materials to other subjects apart from business studies.
3. The study relied primarily on survey research instrument as the source of getting information from the respondent.
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